Site-specific methylation and acetylation of lysine residues in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II
Transcription, Volume 6, Issue 5, 91-101, DOI: 10.1080/21541264.2015.1114983
Dynamic modification of heptad-repeats with the consensus sequence Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7 of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) C-terminal domain (CTD) regulates transcription-coupled processes. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that K7-residues in non-consensus repeats of human RNAPII are modified by acetylation, or mono-, di-, and tri-methylation. K7ac, K7me2, and K7me3 were found exclusively associated with phosphorylated CTD peptides, while K7me1 occurred also in non-phosphorylated CTD. The monoclonal antibody 1F5 recognizes K7me1/2 residues in CTD and reacts with RNAPIIA. Treatment of cellular extracts with phosphatase or of cells with the kinase inhibitor flavopiridol unmasked the K7me1/2 epitope in RNAPII0, consistent with the association of K7me1/2 marks with phosphorylated CTD peptides. Genome-wide profiling revealed high levels of K7me1/2 marks at the transcriptional start site of genes for sense and antisense transcribing RNAPII. The new K7 modifications further expand the mammalian CTD code to allow regulation of differential gene expression.