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Background
Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) based on human brain samples allow a deep and direct understanding of epigenetic dysregulation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, strong variation of cell-type proportions across brain tissue samples represents a significant source of data noise. Here, we report the first EWAS based on sorted neuronal and ...

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Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) has been instrumental to determine the structure and dynamics of biomolecules but distances above 8 nanometer are not accessible. However, with the advent and rapid development of super-resolution (SR) microscopy, distances between two fluorescent dyes below 20 nanometer can be resolved, which hitherto has been ...

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Wir freuen uns, dass am 11.6.2018 im Beisein der Bayerischen Staatsministerin für Wissenschaft und Kunst, Professor Marion Kiechle, der Grundstein für unseren neuen ICEM-Forschungsbau gelegt werden konnte.

Der Bau des Institut für Chemische Epigenetik (ICEM) wird rund 34 Millionen Euro zuzüglich der Erstausstattung kosten. Der Freistaat Bayern übernimmt gut 20 ...

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A major mystery of many types of neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), remains the underlying, disease-specific neuronal damage. Because of the strong interconnectivity of neurons in the brain, neuronal dysfunction necessarily disrupts neuronal circuits. In this article, we review evidence for the disruption of large-scale ...

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Although distinct amino acid motifs containing consecutive prolines (polyP) cause ribosome stalling, which necessitates recruitment of the translation elongation factor P (EF-P), they occur strikingly often in bacterial proteomes. For example, polyP motifs are found in more than half of all histidine kinases in Escherichia coli K-12, which raises the question of ...

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The need  for new pharmacological lead structures, especially against drug resistances, has led to a surge in natural product research and discovery. New biosynthetic gene cluster capturing methods to efficiently clone and heterologously express natural product pathways have thus been developed. Direct pathway cloning (DiPaC) is an emerging synthetic biology ...

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The ability to remember and to navigate to safe places is necessary for survival. Place navigation is known to involve medial entorhinal cortex (MEC)-hippocampal connections. However, learning-dependent changes in neuronal activity in the distinct circuits remain unknown. Here, by using optic fiber photometry in freely behaving mice, we discovered the ...

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Checkpoint molecules such as programmed death 1 (PD-1) dampen excessive T cell activation to preserve immune homeostasis. PD-1-specific monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized cancer therapy, as they reverse tumour-induced T cell exhaustion and restore CTL activity. Based on this success, deciphering underlying mechanisms of PD-1-mediated immune functions has ...

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The analysis of the post-translational modification (PTM) state of proteins using mass spectrometry-based bottom-up proteomic workflows has evolved into a powerful tool for the study of cellular regulatory events that are not directly encoded at the genome level. Besides frequently detected modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation and ubiquitination, ...

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The sorbicillinoids are a large family of fungal natural products, many of which possess highly challenging molecular architectures. Depending on their individual structures they exhibit strong biological activities ranging from radical scavenging and anti‐infective properties to cytotoxicity. Despite the resulting strong biomedical potential of these natural ...

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Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) is a spectroscopic technique that is used for characterization of molecular properties in the solid phase at atomic resolution. In particular, using the approach of magic-angle spinning (MAS), ssNMR has seen widespread applications for topics ranging from material sciences to catalysis, metabolomics, and structural ...

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The decay of electronically excited states of thymine (Thy) and thymidine 5′-monophosphate (TMP) was studied by time-resolved UV/vis and IR spectroscopy. In addition to the well-established ultrafast internal conversion to the ground state, a so far unidentified UV-induced species is observed. In D2O, this species decays with a time constant of 300 ps for thymine ...

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Pore-forming toxins (PFT) are virulence factors that transform from soluble to membrane-bound states. The Yersinia YaxAB system represents a family of binary α-PFTs with orthologues in human, insect, and plant pathogens, with unknown structures. YaxAB was shown to be cytotoxic and likely involved in pathogenesis, though the molecular basis for its two-component ...

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Actinomycetes are a relevant source of novel bioactive compounds. One of the pharmaceutically and biotechnologically important genera that attract natural products research is the genus Nocardiopsis, mainly for its ability to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites accounting for its wide range of biological activities. This review covers the literature ...

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Every living cell possesses numerous transmembrane signalling systems that receive chemical and physical stimuli from the environment and transduce this information into an intracellular signal that triggers some form of cellular response. As unicellular organisms, bacteria require these systems for survival in rapidly changing environments. The receptors ...

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Indigoid photoswitches comprise a class of chromophores that are derived from the parent and well-known indigo dye. Different from most photoswitches their core structures absorb in the visible region of the spectrum in both isomeric states even without substitutions, which makes them especially interesting for applications not tolerant of high-energy UV light. ...

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The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) is widely used as a model organism for the human auditory system. Its hearing range is very similar to ours and it uses the same mechanisms for sound localization. The auditory circuits underlying these functions have been characterized. However, important mechanistic details are still under debate. To elucidate these ...

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Reduced choroidal blood flow and tissue changes in the ageing human eye impair oxygen delivery to photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium. As a consequence, mild but chronic hypoxia may develop and disturb cell metabolism, function and ultimately survival, potentially contributing to retinal pathologies such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). ...

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Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a dimeric molecular chaperone that undergoes large conformational changes during its functional cycle. It has been established that conformational switch points exist in the N-terminal (Hsp90-N) and C-terminal (Hsp90-C) domains of Hsp90, however information for switch points in the large middle-domain (Hsp90-M) is scarce. Here we ...

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